Tidal Constants based on GESLA sea-level records from globally distributed tide gauges


The TIdal CONstants (TICON) data set contains information on harmonic constants for 40 tidal constituents, derived from the GESLA tide gauge records distributed on a quasi-global scale. The tidal estimations were derived through a least squares-based harmonic analysis on the single time series after a screening for outliers and minimal observation period. TICON is a useful and easy-to-handle data set for global ocean tide model validation and has proven to be vital in understanding ocean tides. A first version of TICON based on the GESLA-2 dataset has been published in 2019.


The TICON database has been recently updated based on the GESLA-3 product. This has resulted in the increase in the number of tide gauges to 3679 in the new TICON-3 database compared to the previous version with only 1145 tide gauges. TICON-3 only utilises GESLA-3 records of at least 1-year in length and provides estimations for the amplitude and phase of 40 tidal constituents at all of these tide gauges.

Data Format

The results are stored in a text file and include additional information on the position of the stations, the starting and ending years of the analysed record, the estimated error of the fit, a code that corresponds to the source of the record and additional information on the single time series. More information can be found in the TICON manual.


Data: https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.896587


Manual: Coming soon


The estimations of these constituents are done at DGFI-TUM (Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut of the Technical University of Munich), carried out by Michael Hart-Davis and Denise Dettmering and will be updated alongside major updates to the GESLA dataset. 


When using the data please cite the following publication in additional with the data DOIs: 

Piccioni G., Dettmering D., Bosch W., Seitz F. (2019) TICON: TIdal CONstants based on GESLA sea‐level records from globally located tide gauges. Geoscience Data Journal, 97-104, 10.1002/gdj3.72